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About Granier system and PlantSensors

Granier's sap flow measuring system (Granier, 1985, 1987) stands for its simplicity and versatility and is now the mostly used method by tree ecophysiologists and forest hydrologists in the world.

Since 1994 we have specialised in manufacturing Granier's thermal dissipation sap flow sensors (Granier, 1985; Lu et al, 2004) in Australia. Our sensors are made truly according to Granier's original design and they perfectly match Granier's original calibration. Results obtained using our system have been published in many international journals. 

PlantSensors PS-TDP Sap flow system  
Granier system

The whole system is schematised in the picture on the left (click on the image on the left and then maximize the window view to get a better view). It includes sensor probes, heat-averaging tubes, 4- cores data cable, power supply unit, datalogger and external battery or solar panel.

The Granier sap flow sensor includes two probes inserted in the stem with one probe 10-15cm above the other.The upper probe is heated by applying a constant current across a coiled heating element, giving a constant power. The lower probe is not heated and measures ambient tissue temperature.

The temperature difference between the probes is measured with T-type thermocouples junctions embodied in each probe. Heat dissipation due to sap movement reduces the temperature difference. The temperature difference is found to be closely related to the sap flux density and their relationship is found to be independent of tree species or wood anatomy (Granier 1987; Lu et al, 2004).

Australian distributor for Ecomatik
PlantSensors (Australia) is also the Australian distributor for the products of Ecomatik, Germany (
www.ecomatik.de ).
Please contact us for details at

NEW! PlantSensors developed the latest PS-TDP8 sap flow system to benefit from the new features of the latest Campbell Scientifics' CR1000 loggers. This new system can directly monitor 8 sap flow sensors. Meanwhile PlantSensors also developed the PS-PS12 Power supply unit at constant current specially designed for the Granier sap flow system.

This new system has been successfully tested in the hot and and wet tropics. 8 complete PS-TDP8 systems with 64 PS-TDP sensors did not register any system failure over a 12 month period. Please click here to download the introduction document to this new system.

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Last Modified : 2011 - 03 - 22
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